(refutation of disagreement with 6. E.)
Refutation of claiming that animals are not avoidably harmed in circuses:
- Animals are either raised in captivity or often taken from the wild as youths, their mothers frequently shot for convenience of acquisition. Many animals die during transport and training. Bears have their noses broken and elephants are beaten with iron hooks. Elephants cannot lovingly be coaxed to stand on their heads and all animals are given punishments such as beatings and food deprivation to compel them to perform tricks and to fear their trainers. They are kept in cramped trailers when not performing, and would wander for many kilometres in the wild. As a rule, circus animals are depressed and miserable in captivity compared to how they would thrive in their native habitats.